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Walls, strongly built
City fortifications belong among the oldest of city monuments. They are the evidence of their importance and the social standing of their citizens, proof of their construction and organisational abilities.
The territory of the Czech Republic is situated in a temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. The main European water watershed separating the flow of water to the North, Baltic and Black seas passes through the country. The main point of the watershed is Králický Sněžník (1,423 metres above-sea-level). The country also constitutes the main divide of various mountain systems of varying age and having undergone differing geological and morphological development. The west and central part of the Czech Republic consists of the Bohemian Highlands from the Palaeozoic age. The West Carpathians (formed in the Tertiary age) stretch into the eastern part of the country.
The climate is marked by both oceanic and continental influences. Predominant, however, are west winds bringing relatively wet weather.
Mount Sněžka, 1,602 m above-sea level (Giant Mountains)
Outlet of the River Labe at Hřensko, 115 m above-sea-level (Hřensko)
Biggest dam reservoir
Lipno, 4,870 hectares
Biggest artificial lake for fish-breeding
Rožmberk, 489 hectares
Biggest natural lake
Černé jezero (Black Lake), 18.4 hectares
Hranice Gorge, 329.5 metres
Biggest national park
Šumava, 685.5 km2
Biggest landscape conservation area
Beskydy Mountains, 1,160 km2
Highest situated settlement
Filipova huť, 1,093 m above-sea-level
Lowest situated settlement
Hřensko, 130 m above-sea-level
Vltava, 433 km
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UNESCO Biosphere Reservation
The worldwide network of UNESCO biosphere reservations includes interesting ecosystems. Biosphere reservations have been declared in the Czech Republic in the following locations: Třeboň district, Pálava, Křivoklát district, Šumava, Giant Mountains and White Carpathians.
Nature conservation areas represent the great wealth of diverse nature and constitute an irreplaceable natural heritage.
The National Park is an internationally recognised category in which unique areas with unspoilt or less affected ecosystems are declared as being of international or national significance. Free access to the public is limited. Details concerning this are laid out in the relevant NP regulations for visitors.
The Landscape conservation area is a Czech category aimed at protecting extensive areas or whole geographic regions. The aim is to conserve the existing landscape and to ensure harmony between inhabited and non-inhabited areas. At present, there are 24 areas in this category.
The National Nature Reserve is an important category concerning small areas of protected land. It ensures conservation of unique ecosystems containing rare and threatened species as well as inorganic phenomena.
The National Natural Monument is as a rule a smaller area and its sense is to protect specific natural objects or formations of both national and international significance. It can be a geological or geomorphological formation (such as caves, rock formations, etc.), a place with rare minerals or animal and plant species, or an object formed by specific human activity (e.g. old parks). Přírodní rezervace je rovněž určena k ochraně ekosystémů nebo jejich fragmentů, význačných pro určitý region či geografickou oblast. Má stanoveny obdobné základní ochranné podmínky jako národní přírodní rezervace.
The Nature Reserve is also designed to protect ecosystems or part of them characteristic for a given region or geographic area. Similar conditions and regulations apply as in the National Nature Reserve.